Eczema in babies: causes and manifestations

Eczema in babies is the most common inflammatory skin disease during most of childhood, affecting 5-20% of children. Atopic eczema usually appears during the first year of life. In turn, the majority of affected children are also allergic to house dust mites and this is one of the main causes of the worsening of the disease.

What causes eczema in babies?

While genetic factors are important, including those that encode skin barrier proteins, like filaggrin, genetics alone do not explain the higher prevalence in people with higher socioeconomic status. Babies with eczema have an increased risk of secondary skin infections and the disease is often associated with diseases mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE), such as asthma, food allergies and allergic rhinitis according to studies. . The specific environmental exposures that explain the risk of eczema are still unknown, but early microbial exposure and variations in exposure to urban environments may have an influence.

How does eczema in babies manifest?

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, itchy rashes. In turn, the associated changes are observed on the surface, such as:
• Bottling
• Thickening (lichenification)
• Excoriations
• Papules
• Vesicles
• Suppuration.
There is a wide range of presentations of atopic eczema, from minimal flexion eczema to erythroderma. Although eczema can affect any part of the body, in babies it usually affects the cheeks, neck, and skin folds on the knees and elbows. Children with eczema have an impaired skin barrier function. As a result, they experience trans epidermal water loss and the property of being able to retain it. In addition, they contain less ceramides and intra-epidermal lipids. In short, it is a disease that often appears and goes away for years.